74-year-old man with tumor in pancreatic tail on screening US. Answer


74-year-old man with tumor in pancreatic tail on screening US.



iPad version



WMV version

Key words: Pancreatic metastases, 膵転移、Renal cell carcinoma, RCC, 腎細胞癌、腎癌、腎癌膵転移、RCC, diffusion, ADC map

Key images:

Plain CT1Dynamic CT early 1Dynamic CT delay 1MRCP1T2WI 1T2WI coronal 1T1WI FS1MRI dynamic early 1MRI dynamic portal 1DWI ADCADC mapPET CT1


Clinical features, Prognosis

1. Song SW, Cheng JF, Liu N, Zhao TH.

Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic metastases in 22 patients: a retrospective study.WorldJ SurgOncol. 2014 Sep 25;12:299.

2. SellnerF, Tykalsky N, De Santis M, et al.

Solitary and multiple isolated metastases of clear cell renal carcinoma to thepancreas: an indication for pancreatic surgery.

Ann SurgOncol. 2006 Jan;13(1):75-85. Epub 2006 Jan 1.

3. ZerbiA, Ortolano E, Balzano G, et al.

Pancreatic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: which patients benefit from surgical resection?Ann SurgOncol. 2008 Apr;15(4):1161-8.

4. Law CH, Wei AC, Hanna SS,  et al.

Pancreatic resection for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: presentation, treatment, and outcome. Ann Surg Oncol.2003 Oct;10(8):922-6.

5. Sohn TA, Yeo CJ, Cameron JL, et al.

Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the pancreas: results of surgical management.J GastrointestSurg.2001 Jul-Aug;5(4):346-51.

6. Faure JP, Tuech JJ, Richer JP, et al.

Pancreatic metastasis of renal cell carcinoma: presentation, treatment and survival. J Urol. 2001 Jan;165(1):20-2.

7. AkatsuT, Shimazu M, Aiura K, et al.

Clinicopathological features and surgical outcome of isolated metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology. 2007 Sep;54(78):1836-40.

Imaging features

1. Ng CS, Loyer EM, Iyer RB, David CL, DuBrow RA, Charnsangavej C.

Metastases to the pancreas from renal cell carcinoma: findings on three-phase contrast-enhanced helical CT. AJRAm J Roentgenol. 1999 Jun;172(6):1555-9.

2. Klein KA, Stephens DH, Welch TJ.

CT characteristics of metastatic disease of the pancreas. Radiographics. 1998 Mar-Apr;18(2):369-78.

3. VincenziM, Pasquotti G, Polverosi R, et al.
Imaging of pancreatic metastases from renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Imaging. 2014 Apr 22;14:5.

4. PalmowskiM, Hacke N, Satzl S, et al.

Metastasis to the pancreas: characterization by morphology and contrast enhancement features on CT and MRI. Pancreatology. 2008;8(2):199-203.

5. AscentiG, Visalli C,  Genitori A, et al.

Multiple hypervascular pancreatic metastases from renal cell carcinoma: dynamic MR and spiral CT in three cases. Clin Imaging. 2004 Sep-Oct;28(5):349-52.

6. Tsitouridis I, Diamantopoulou A, Michaelides M, et al.

Pancreatic metastases: CT and MRI findings. DiagnIntervRadiol. 2010 Mar;16(1):45-51.

RCC and ADC value

1. Choi YA, Kim CK, Park SY, et al.

Subtype differentiation of renal cell carcinoma using diffusion-weighted and blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI.AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Jul;203(1):W78-84.

2. SasamoriH, Saiki M, Suyama J, et al.

Utility of apparent diffusion coefficients in the evaluation of solid renal tumors at 3T. MagnReson Med Sci. 2014;13(2):89-95.

3. Sevcenco S, Heinz-Peer G, Ponhold L, et al.

Utility and limitations of 3-Tesla diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for differentiation of renal tumors. EurJ Radiol. 2014 Jun;83(6):909-13.

4. Yu X, Lin M, Ouyang H, et al.

Application of ADC measurement in characterization of renal cell carcinomas with different pathological types and grades by 3.0T diffusion-weighted MRI.

EurJ Radiol. 2012 Nov;81(11):3061-6.

5. PaudyalB, Paudyal P, Tsushima Y, et al.

The role of the ADC value in the characterisation of renal carcinoma by diffusion-weighted MRI. Br J Radiol. 2010 Apr;83(988):336-43.


1. Win AZ, Aparici CM.

Clinical effectiveness of (18)f-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in management of renal cell carcinoma: a single institution experience. World J Nucl Med. 2015 Jan-Apr;14(1):36-40.

2. Sharma P, Karunanithi S, Chakraborty PS, et al.

18F-Fluoride PET/CT for detection of bone metastasis in patients with renal cell carcinoma: a pilot study. NuclMed Commun. 2014 Dec;35(12):1247-53.

3. Lee H, Hwang KH, Kim SG, et al.

Can Initial (18)F-FDG PET-CT Imaging Give Information on Metastasis in Patients with Primary Renal Cell Carcinoma? NuclMed Mol Imaging. 2014 Jun;48(2):144-52.

4. Fuccio C, Ceci F, Castellucci P, et al.

Restaging clear cell renal carcinoma with 18F-FDG PET/CT. ClinNucl Med. 2014 Jun;39(6):e320-4.

5. Chen JL, Appelbaum DE, Kocherginsky M, et al.

FDG-PET as a predictive biomarker for therapy with everolimus in metastatic renal cell cancer. Cancer Med. 2013 Aug;2(4):545-52.

6. Nakhoda Z, Torigian DA, Saboury B, et al.

Assessment of the diagnostic performance of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT for detection and characterization of solid renal malignancies. Hell J Nucl Med. 2013 Jan-Apr;16(1):19-24.

7. Wang HY, Ding HJ, Chen JH, et al.

Meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of [18F]FDG-PETand PET/CT in renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Imaging. 2012 Oct 26;12:464-74.

8. Namura K, Minamimoto R, Yao M, et al.

Impact of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) evaluated by 18-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) on survival for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: a preliminary report. BMC Cancer. 2010 Dec 3;10:667.

9. Mueller-Lisse UG, Mueller-Lisse UL.

Imaging of advanced renal cell carcinoma. World J Urol. 2010 Jun;28(3):253-61.

10. Rodríguez Martínez de Llano S, Jiménez-Vicioso A, et al.

Clinical impact of (18)F-FDG PET in management of patients with renal cell carcinoma.

Rev Esp Med Nucl. 2010 Jan-Feb;29(1):12-9.

11. Staging of renal cell carcinoma.

Mueller-Lisse UG, Mueller-Lisse UL, Meindl T, et al. EurRadiol. 2007 Sep;17(9):2268-77.

12. Ak I, Can C.

F-18 FDG PET in detecting renal cell carcinoma. ActaRadiol. 2005 Dec;46(8):895-9.


Thymoma teaching, 胸腺腫 まとめ

Thymoma teaching, 胸腺腫 まとめ




解答編 前篇はこちら

iPad version

You tube version

Key words: Thymoma, 胸腺腫、anterior mediastinal tumor, 前縦隔腫瘍, WHO classification, WHO分類、Masaoka classification, 正岡分類、胸腺癌, thymic cancer, Diffusion weighted image, DWI, 拡散強調画像


  • 大きい
  • 被膜(より完全)、隔壁
  • 境界明瞭、不明瞭
  • 分葉状、不整
  • 出血、壊死、嚢胞性変化
  • 石灰化
  • 不均一造影効果
  • 造影効果が高いか否か
  • T2WI上不均一
  • T2WI上腫瘍内の低信号
  • 胸膜播種
  • 縦隔脂肪浸潤
  • 大血管浸潤
  • LN腫大
  • 線維性隔壁:AB、B
  • MRIは被膜、隔壁、出血の検出でCTより優れる
  • ADC値はWHO分類、正岡分類と相関:ADC値低いとより悪性度高い


1. Priola AM, Priola SM, Di Franco M, et al.Computed tomography and thymoma: distinctive findings in invasive and noninvasive thymoma and predictive features of recurrence.

RadiolMed. 2010 Feb;115(1):1-21.

2. Tomiyama N, Müller NL, Ellis SJ, et al.

Invasive and noninvasive thymoma: distinctive CT features.

J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2001 May-Jun;25(3):388-93.

3. Jeong YJ, Lee KS, Kim J, et al.

Does CT of thymic epithelial tumors enable us to differentiate histologic subtypes and predict prognosis?

Am J Roentgenol. 2004 Aug;183(2):283-9.

4. Harris K, Elsayegh D, Azab B, et al.10.1186/1477-7819-9-95.

Thymoma calcification: is it clinically meaningful?

World J SurgOncol. 2011 Aug 23;9:95.

5. Hu YC, Wu L, Yan LF, et al.

Predicting subtypes of thymic epithelial tumors using CT: new perspective based on a comprehensive analysis of 216 patients.

Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 10;4:6984.

6. Sadohara J, Fujimoto K, Müller NL, et al.

Thymic epithelial tumors: comparison of CT and MR imaging findings of low-risk thymomas, high-risk thymomas, and thymic carcinomas.

Eur J Radiol. 2006 Oct;60(1):70-9.

7. Inoue A, Tomiyama N, Fujimoto K, et al.

MR imaging of thymic epithelial tumors: correlation with World Health Organization classification.

Radiat Med.2006 Apr;24(3):171-81.

8. Han J, Lee KS, Yi CA, et al.

Thymic epithelial tumors classified according to a newly established WHO scheme: CT and MR findings.

Korean J Radiol. 2003 Jan-Mar;4(1):46-53.

Diffusion-weighted images in thymomas.

1. Abdel Razek AA, Khairy M Nada N.

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in thymic epithelial tumors: correlation with World Health Organization classification and clinical staging.

Radiology. 2014 Oct;273(1):268-75.

2. Priola AM, Priola SM, Giraudo MT, et al.

Chemical-shift and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of thymus in myasthenia gravis: usefulness of quantitative assessment.

Invest Radiol. 2015 Apr;50(4):228-38

3. Seki S, Koyama H, Ohno Y, et al.

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging vs. multi-detector row CT: Direct comparison of capability for assessment of management needs for anterior mediastinal solitary tumors

Eur J Radiol. 2014 May;83(5):835-42.

4. Shin KE, Yi CA, Kim TS, et al.

Diffusion-weighted MRI for distinguishing non-neoplastic cysts from solid masses in the mediastinum: problem-solving in mediastinal masses of indeterminate internal characteristics on CT. EurRadiol. 2014 Mar;24(3):677-84.

EurRadiol. 2014 Mar;24(3):677-84.

55-year-old woman with vertigo. Answer 解答編

55-year-old woman with vertigo. 解答編


iPad version はこちら

You tube version はこちら

Key words: 巨大くも膜顆粒, くも膜顆粒、giant arachnoid granulation, arachnoid granulation, AG, AGs

Key comment: AGs  くも膜顆粒とは?

  • 通常1cm 未満:2-8mm、
  • 古いAJNRの論文だとCT上24%, MRI上13%で(造影MRIの静脈洞の濃染欠損域として)認められる 。平均的大きさは4-5mm
  • ほとんどが画像的に横静脈洞にみられる
  • 次に多いのが静脈洞交会(TorcularHerophili)
  • 剖検例29例も検討し類似結果を得ている 出現頻度 66%
  • 剖検では1-8mmで平均2mm
  • 性差はない
  • くも膜顆粒が存在する群は有意に年齢が高め
  • 無症状がほとんどで偶然見つかる、稀に頭痛

巨大なくも膜顆粒 って? giant AGs

  • 巨大くも膜顆粒:1cm を超えるもの
  • 19個の1cmを超えるくも膜顆粒を検討した45-75才 17人(2人が2つのAGs有す)
  • 2/17症例 頭痛あり
  • 横静脈洞:12、上矢状洞:6、静脈洞交会:1
  • CSF と同等の信号域と言われていたが・・・80%はCSFと同等ではない 何故?
  • AGsは単純にCSFの袋ではない→ ビデオを見てみてくださいね。


1) Leach JL, Jones BV,  Tomsick TA, et al. Normal appearance of arachnoid granulations on contrast-enhanced CT and MR of the brain: differentiation from dural sinus disease.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol.1996 Sep;17(8):1523-32.

2)  Trimble CR, Harnsberger HR, Castillo M, Brant-Zawadzki M, Osborn AG.

“Giant” arachnoid granulations just like CSF?: NOT!!

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Oct;31(9):1724-8. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A2157.








CieszanowskiA, Anysz-Grodzicka A, Szeszkowski W,

Characterization of focal liver lesions using quantitative techniques: comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient values and T2 relaxation times.

EurRadiol. 2012 Nov;22(11):2514-24. doi: 10.1007/s00330-012-2519-x. Epub 2012 Jun 15.

この論文では ADC map(accuracy 81%) より T2 relaxation time (同 89%)の方が使えると言っています。

論文は2012年とこのVideo をアップしたときには非常に新しいものです。

②上記を知ったうえで、今回の症例のように注意が非常に必要な症例 つまり例外を知ることも重要です。日常診療で輝きを増すには例外を明確に知っているかで決まります。T2 relaxation time を使いこなし、例外も知ることでEOB-MRIでの血管腫との鑑別が容易になります。

③粘液癌、粘液産生性腺癌 vs. 血管腫は 永遠のテーマであるが、実は症例をじっくり眺めているとヒントが得られる可能性もあります。粘液癌、粘液産生性腺癌はT2 relaxation time を使わなくても形態的にも違いが分かります(文献はまだありませんが)



問題としてだして いくつかある問題のうち9%しか正解の得られなかった難問です。

iPhone, iPad の先生はこちら

You tube version はこちら


Key words: 粘液産生性腺癌、Mucinous adenocarcinoma, mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma, 肝転移、liver metastases, 血管腫、hemangioma, T2 relaxation time, ADC map

Key images.

HP 添付したkey images 1HP 添付したkey images 2HP 添付したkey images 3HP 添付したkey images 4Similar cases  類似症例: 1週間以内にスライドアップする予定です。



EOBプリモビスト第8回 回答

糖尿病、慢性肝炎 治療中




②inphase, opposed phase をよく見ることにより、病変内部の性状を詳細に見れるようになるでしょう。より病理に近い診断を頭の中に描くことが可能となります。

③Dynamic MRIをよくよくみると、病理分化度の違いに気が付かれることでしょう。その瞬間もし先生が、「おや?」 と思われたなら、かなり肝臓画像診断に精通している先生です。「俺はわかったからもうビデオは見ない?」 いえ、ちょっとその先の3分間も見てみてください。

④肝細胞相で結節全体の大きさがわかるので、opposed phase と対比してみると結節が2種類の病理像から構成されていることがわかります。この対比はHCC診断とくに早期高分化型あるいは早期から多血化に脱分化する状況において重要です。

⑤HCCの多段階発癌という現象が実際の画像でどのような状況というか所見を作り出すことになるのかを解説しています。これを見ることで先生は実は今回の症例が変わった症例なんだと言う事を認識できます。ビデオ6:25 あたり。ではいったい通常のパターンとはどういう画像所見になるのでしょうか? ビデオ8:10 あたり

iPad version

You tube version

key words: 早期高分化型肝癌、早期高分化型HCC、脂肪化、肝癌の 多段階発育、early hepatocellular carcinoma, early hepatoma, fatty change, fatty metamorphosis, multistep carcinogenesis


27-year-old man with knee injury


Meniscofemoral ligament (MFL)

iPad version.


You tube version.


Key words: 膝、膝関節、正常構造、ピットフォール、後十字靭帯、半月大腿靭帯、前半月大腿靭帯、後半月大腿靭帯、ハンフリー靭帯リズバーグ靭帯、knee, knee joint, normal anatomy, pitfall, posterior cruciate ligament, meniscofemoral ligament, anterior meniscofemoral ligament, posterior meniscofemoral ligament, Humphrey’s ligament, Wrisberg’s ligament, Humphrey, Humphry, Wrisberg

Key images: Wrisberg’s ligament  27-year-old man with knee injury.

Wrisberg 靭帯、27歳男性 問題提示症例

MFL シェーマ Proton WI sagittal 矢印付Proton WI coronal 矢印付

Humphrey’s ligament case 82-year-old woman

ハンフリー靭帯 82才女性例

82才女性例別症例 Humphrey's lig.

Reference 文献:

1. Bintoudi A1, Natsis K, Tsitouridis I.

Anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligaments: MRI evaluation.

Anat Res Int. 2012;2012:839724. Epub2012 Sep 17.

  • Wrisberg ligament (PCLの後側), pMFL

–500例中322例 64.4%≒64%

      男性240(75%), 女性 82例(25%),  冠状断で描出されやすい

  • Humphrey ligament (PCLの前側), aMFL

–500例中59例 11.8%≒12%,

男性40(68%), 女性 19例(32%), 矢状断で描出されやすい

2.Watanabe AT, Carter BC, Teitelbaum GP, Bradley WG Jr.

Common pitfalls in magnetic resonance imaging of the knee.

J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1989 Jul;71(6):857-62.


3.  Kim JE, Choi SH

Is the location of the Wrisberg ligament related to frequent complete discoid lateral meniscus tear?

Acta Radiol. 2010 Dec; 51:1120-5. doi: 10.3109/02841851.2010.520026.


4. De Abreu MR, Chung CB, Trudell D, etal.

Meniscofemoral ligaments: patterns of tears and pseudotears of the menisci using cadaveric and clinical material.

Skeletal Radiol. 2007;36:729-735. Epub 2007 May 5.


5. Park LS, Jacobson JA, Jamadar DA, et al.

Posterior horn lateral meniscal tears simulating meniscofemoral ligament attachment in the setting of ACL tear:MRI findings.

Skeletal Radiol. 2007; 36:399-403. Epub 2007 Jan 16


6. Erbagci H, Yildirim H, Kizilkan N, Gümüsburun E.

An MRI study of the meniscofemoral and transverse ligaments of the knee.

Surg Radiol Anat. 2002 May;24(2):120-4.



Degenerated large adrenal tumor, 60-year-old woman


iPad version

You tube version

Key words: 副腎癌、副腎腺腫、巨大変性副腎腺腫、Adrenocortical carcinoma, ACC, large degenerated adrenocortical adenoma, pheochromocytoma


Key images.


Plain CT(単純CT)

Plain CT1Dynamic CT early phase (ダイナミック造影CT 早期相)Poral phase1

Dynamic CT delayed phase (ダイナミック造影CT後期相)Delayed phase1Dynamic CT delayed phase (ダイナミック造影CT後期相): coronal (冠状断)

Delayed phase1 coronal


T2WIT2WI 1T1WI  with opposed phaseT1WI Opposed phase 1coronalDynamic MRI early phase   Dynamic early phase 1Dynamic MRI portal phase

Dynamic portal phaese 1Dynamic MRI delayed phase, coronal

Dynamic delayed phase 1 coronal

Diffusion weighted imageDWI 1